- 《中医内科学》，上海科学技术出版社 王永炎, ISBN 7-5323-4105-4.
- 《中医内科学》，中国中医药出版社, 田德禄, ISBN 7-80156-577-0.
- 《针灸治疗学》，中国中医药出版社，王启才, ISBN 7-80156-443-X/R.443.
- 《针灸临床神经系统疾病定位诊》，陈邦国 , ISBN 7-03-012016-7.
- Private communication, Goh Leong Bee 吴良美, TCM Practitioner in Singapore, since 1980, home visits / Acupuncture treatments to Stroke Patients.
- Private communication, 冯木兰主任，中国内蒙自治区中蒙医院针灸科。
- Erfahrungen mit dem Bobath-Konzept, Bettina Paeth Rohlfs, Thieme, ISBN 3-13-116262-7.
- Chinese Characters correction, graphic design, Kong Qing Ru (孔庆茹).
It is my personal aim that by compiling the information regarding Stroke treatment, TCM practitioners in Switzerland and in the region who treat Stroke patients could obtain useful information from this paper.
In TCM, Stroke is regarded as the disorder of Qi and Blood, this disorder causes wind, fire, phlegm, stagnation, and lead to blockage in the Blood vessels of the brain or Blood leaks out from the Blood vessels in the brain.
In TCM, Strokes can be classified into Jing Luo (Meridian) Strokes and ZhangFu Strokes, it depends on the level of injury done to the nerves.
In the Nei Jing 《内经》 and Jin Gui Yao Lue 《金匮要略》, Strokes are already mentioned, and under different names.
Statistics in China shown that Stroke patients are mostly above 40 years old, there are 94.07 / 100, 000, Stroke is among the top killer in China.
The attacks of Stroke could be in all seasons, but, in Winter and in Spring, more attacks are reported.
TCM offers possibilities to treat Stroke patients, to help them in better and quicker recovery after the attack. TCM treatments could be used as well as a mean to prevent the attacks of Stroke.
In western medicine, Ischemic and hemorrhagic (Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage) Strokes, transient ischemic attack (TIA) are within the scope of this paper.
Characteristics of Stroke Patients
Stroke is characterised by blockage or bleeding of the Blood vessels that lead to injury of nerves.
Stroke patients could suffer from:
- loss of consciousness, half side of the body paralysed, blurred speech or lost the capacity to speak, tongue and mouth twisted to one side, loss of feeling in half side of the body
Stroke patients could also have complaints such as:
- headache, dizziness, vomiting, loss of control of urination and defecation or constipation, irritation, cramps, lot of phlegm
- stiff, and/or twisted to one side, the body of the tongue could be dark red with purple dots, the coating could be white or yellow, with or without sticky coating
- tight, round or thin
1. Loss of consciousness
The patient could suffer from simply tendency to sleep a lot or unclear in the mind when awake till complete loss of consciousness.
2. Half side of the body paralysed
The patient suffers from weakness of the extremities, without force in one side of the body to complete inability to move one side of the body. The extremities could be just the leg or the hand, must not be both.
At the later stage of the disease, the patient suffers normally from the stiffness of the extremities, especially the joints involved, difficulties to move the joints are commonly seen among these patients.
3 Mouth and tongue twisted to one side
This normally happens with patients who are paralysed half side of the body, the tongue twisted normally to the paralysed side. Some patients are unable to control their saliva as well.
4. Unclear speech or loss the capacity to speak
The Stroke patients suffer from unclear and / or very slow speech to unable to speak completely. Some patients had warning sign before the attack of the stroke, occasionally, they lost the ability to speak.
5. Warning Signs and Alarm Signals
Warning signs exist normally before the attack of the stroke. The signs could be diziness, headache, tinnitus, sudden loss of the ability to speak, lost of feeling of the extremities, blurred vision, these signs could be a few times within one day, or recur a few times within several days.
Bleeding in the stuhl, vomiting of Blood refer to warning with alarm signals.
Aetiology and pathology
Onset causes for Stroke are often: sudden change of weather condition, exhaustion, extreme emotional states.
In TCM terminology, the rebellious Qi and Blood are the main triggers for Strokes.
Most Stroke patients have Ben deficiency, Biao excess: Excess in the upper part of the body, deficiency in the lower part of the body. The Ben being: liver and kidneys Yin deficiency, Qi and Blood deficiency. The Biao being: wind and fire, phlegm and dampness, rebellious Qi and Blood.
The disease starts in the brain, it is closely related to the heart, kidneys, liver and spleen.
The precondition being: Yin deficiency and Qi deficiency, fire (Liver, heart), wind (liver wind and external wind), phlegm (wind phlegm, dampness and phlegm), Qi (rebellious), Blood (stasis).
1. Yin and Blood deficiency
Yin and Blood deficiency could be due to the aging process or suffering a long standing diseases. Yin Qi deficient implies that the moving force for Blood is not there, thus resulted in blockage in the Blood vessels in general, for the case of Stroke, the blockage is also in the brain. Yin Blood deficient implies that the control of Yang can not be assured, thus resulted in internal wind, additionally, if phlegm precondition exists, this increases the risk for Stroke attack.
With exhaustion, Yang Qi is out of control, it expands upwards, thus creates wind, in addition, if phlegm and Blood Stasis present as well, this increases the risk for Stroke attack.
3. Dysfunction of spleen, internal phlegm
Dysfunction of spleen could be:
- due to excessive consumption of fatty and oily food
- liver Qi attacks the spleen
These conditions weaken the spleen and create the phlegm condition. Note that liver fire could also turns body fluids into Phlegm.
4. Extreme emotional states
Repressed anger and many other emotional disturbances could put the meridian system out of balance, in particular, the liver and the heart in the case for Stroke.
Liver Yang rising is a common consequence from repressed anger, thus create wind and fire condition, rebellious Blood flow resulted, thus higher risk for Stroke attack.
CT or MRI can help to confirm the Stroke attack.
Based on the degree of the injury of the nerves and the state of consciousness of the patient, Strokes can be classified into Jing Luo (Meridian) Stroke or Zhang Fu Stroke.
Jing Luo (Meridian) Stroke
Strokes in the Luo refer to loss of feeling or motor weakness on one side of the extremities, the patients could also suffer from mouth and tongue twisted to one side.
Strokes in the Jing refer to one side of the body is paralysed, mouth and tongue twisted to one side, difficulty to speak or loss the capacity to speak, stiffness in one side of the body.
Both strokes in the Jing and in the Luo are termed as Jing Luo Strokes, in these cases, the patients are in conscious state.
Zhang Fu Stroke
Zhang Fu Strokes, the patients have lost their conscious state, with one side of the body paralysed, mouth and tongue twisted to one side, unclear speech or loss the capacity to speak.
- If after the attack, the patient loss the consciousness completely, the pathogenic Qi is predominant, this is stroke in the Fu organ. The disease is severe.
- If the patient is not fully unconsciousness, sometime awake with unclear mind, this is stroke in the Zhang organ. This is a manifestation of upright Qi fighting with the pathogenic Qi.
Differentiation: Acute, Recovery and Resistant Recovery Phases
After the Stroke attack, TCM distinguishes the following three phases:
- Acute phase: for Jing Luo Stroke patients, the first two weeks after the attack, for Zhang Fu Stroke patients, the first month after the attack
- Recovery phase: after the acute phase until six months
- Resistant recovery phase, after the recovery phase
Differentiation: Wei and Stroke
Wei (痿) disease: Wei (痿) disease could have extremities paralysed, weakness of the extremities, in most cases, with slow onset. The patients are conscious. Mostly both legs or both hands or both hands and legs. Muscle atrophy is also seen in most cases. In Stroke patients, muscle atrophy is also seen in patients due to lack of use of the muscle, mostly in the resistant recovery phase.
Differentiation: Ben / Biao, Bi / Tuo
1. Ben and Biao.
Ben deficiency and Biao excess are common characteristics in all Stroke patients.
In acute phase, Biao excess is predominant:
- If the patient suffers from headache, dizziness, half side of the body paralysed sudden loss of consciousness, cramps, stiffness in the extremities, this is due to internal wind.
- If the patient suffers from excess phlegm condition, especially in the throat, loss of consciousness, tongue with white and sticky coating, this is due to the phlegm excess condition.
- If the patient suffers from red face, dry mouth, bitter taste in the mouth, feeling of heat in the body, especially on the back, agitation, dry stuhl, yellow urine, this is due to the pathogenic heat.
- If the patient suffers from weakness in the extremities and with a purple tongue, this is due to lack of Yang Qi and Blood Stasis.
In the recovery and resistant recovery phases, Ben deficiency is predominant:
- If the patient suffers from paralysed extremities, swollen legs and hands, uncontrolled saliva, sweating, breathlessness, the cause is Qi deficiency.
- If the patient suffers from sensitive to cold and cold extremities, this is due to Yang deficiency.
- If the patient suffers from dry mouth, dry throat, five palms heat, red tongue, little coating, this is due to Yin deficiency.
Bi (闭) and Tuo (脱)
For Zhang Fu Strokes, Bi (闭) and Tuo (脱) could be further distinguished:
- Bi (闭) closes the internal passage of the body, loss of consciousness, teeth and jaw closed tight, mouth closed, constipation, stiffness of the body, this is excess case. Further differentiation could be done on Yin Bi or Yang Bi.
- in the case of Yang Bi, phlegm heat predominant, red face, feeling of heat in the body, bad breath, agitation, phlegm predominant.
- in the case of Yin Bi, pale face, purple lips, lifelessness, cold extremities, white and sticky tongue coat, pulse is deep and slow.
- Tuo (脱) refers to the Yang in the five Zhang organs leaves the body, complete loss of the consciousness, closed eyes with open mouth, cold extremities, sweating, uncontrolled of defecation and urination. Light breathing, the patient is in danger.
Progression of the disease
With the time, Jing Luo Strokes could turn into Zhang Fu Strokes and vice versa. It is also observed that Jing Stroke could turn into Luo Stroke and vice versa, the same apply to Zhang Stroke and Fu Stroke.
- If the patient develops with the time, loss of consciousness, vomiting, headache, stiff neck, this implies that the upright Qi is diminishing, the pathogenic Qi is gaining force, the disease becomes severe.
- If the Zhang Fu stroke patients show recover from the unconsciousness, the ability of the extremities is not worsen rather improved, the strokes in the Zhang Fu has developed into Jing Luo Stroke. This is considered good progression.
Principle of treatment
In the acute phase, stroke patients manifest mostly with excess in the Biao, in this phase, treat the Biao, treatment centred in elimination of the pathogenic Qi, methods such as pacify the liver, eliminate wind, clear phlegm heat, resolve phlegm to free the path way of Fu organs. Invigorate Blood to free the Luo channels. Awaken the Shen and open the orifice are often used.
For strokes with Bi (闭) and Tuo (脱) nature, eliminate the pathogenic Qi is not sufficient, it is a must to support the upright Qi as well.
In the recovery and the resistant recovery phases, excess and deficiency both exist in most cases, it is also necessary to eliminate the pathogenic Qi and at the same time to support the upright Qi. Methods such as: nourish the Yin and eliminate the Wind, nourish the Qi, invigorate Blood are used.
Acute and Recovery Phase
TCM Treatments with Herbs
A) Jing Luo Stroke Differentiation
1. Wind phlegm with Blood stasis 1
Half side of the body paralysed or loss of feeling, mouth and tongue twisted to one side, unclear speech or loss the capacity of speech, dizziness. Dark tongue body, with thin white coat or sticky white coat.
Invigorate Blood, eliminate Blood stasis, resolve phlegm to free the channels
Hua Dan Tong Luo Tang 化氮通络汤
2. Liver Yang Rising
The symptoms stated in 1plus red face and red eye, bitter taste in the mouth, dry Stuhl, irritable. Tongue body is red, with thin yellow coating. Pulse is tied and forceful.
Pacify the liver, eliminate the fire and free the channels
Tian Ma Gou Teng Yin 天麻钩藤饮
3. Phlegm Heat
The symptoms stated in 1 plus swollen abdomen, lot of phlegm in the body, tongue body is red dark, coating is yellow with or without sticky coating. Pulse is forceful and tied, or only forceful at the paralysed side.
Xing Lou Cheng Qi Tang 星蒌承气汤
4. Qi deficiency, Blood Stasis
The symptoms stated in 1 plus pale face, no force, uncontrolled saliva, sweating, swollen legs and hands, Tongue colour is dark, with thin white or white and sticky coat. Pulse is thin and deep, could be slow or/and tied.
Nourish the Qi, invigorate Blood, support the upright Qi.
Bu Yang Huan Wu Tang 补阳还五汤
5. Yin deficiency with Wind
Same as case 1 plus insomnia, tinnitus, five palms heat, red tongue body, with little or no coating. Pulse is thin, could be quick.
Nourish the liver and the kidneys, eliminate the wind.
Zhen Gan Xi Feng Tang 镇肝熄风汤
B) Zhang Fu Strokes
B1) Bi (闭) Stroke
B11) Yang Bi (阳闭)
1. Wind Fire
Sudden onset, loss of consciousness, half side of the body paralysed, mouth twisted to one side, stiffness in extremities, both hands hold tied on objects, often suffer from cramps. Tongue body is red, coating is either yellow and dry or black and dry. Pulse is tied and fast.
Clear fire and eliminate wind, awaken the Shen and open the orifice.
Tian Ma Gou Teng Yin 天麻钩藤饮
2. Phlegm Fire
Sudden onset, loss of consciousness, half side of the body paralysed, mouth twisted to one side, stiffness in extremities, heat feeling on the back, irritated, often suffer from cramps, constipation. Tongue body is red, coating is either yellow and sticky or yellow and dry. Pulse is tied and forceful.
Clear fire and resolve phlegm, awaken the Shen and open the orifice.
Ling Yang Jiao Tang 羚羊角汤
B12) Yin Bi (阴闭)
3. Phlegm Dampness
Sudden onset, loss of consciousness, half side of the body paralysed, mouth twisted to one side, pale face, cold extremities. Tongue body is dark, coating is either white and / or sticky. Pulse is deep and slow.
Dry the dampness and resolve phlegm, awaken the Shen and open the orifice.
Di Dang Tang (涤氮汤)
B2) Tuo (脱) Stroke
1. Yuan Qi failed, disordered Shen
Same as case 1 plus loss of consciousness, heavy sweating, cold limps, uncontrolled of urination and defecation. Tongue body is purple, with white and sticky coating, pulse is deep and weak.
Nourish the Qi, rescue the Yang and consolidate the Tuo (脱).
Shen Fu Tang (参附汤)
Other Treatment Methods
- Jing Luo or Zhang Fu Strokes with Phlegm heat, internal Bi (闭) condition, Qing Kai Ling Zhu She Ye (清开灵注射液) 40 ml plus 5 % Pu Tao Tang Zhu She Ye (葡萄糖注射液) 250 – 500 ml, twice per day. Strokes with Blood deficiency could use instead Mai Luo Ning Zhu She Ye (脉络宁注射液). Note: the injection method is daily performed in the Chinese hospitals. In all other countries, practitioners should find out if the local authority allows injection for TCM practitioners.
- Strokes with Wind fire and phlegm heat condition could use Niu Huang Qing Xin Wan 牛黄清心丸, 1 –2 pills each time, 3 – 4 times per day.
- Herbal plaster: Chuan Shan Jia (穿山甲), Da Chuan Wu Tou (大川乌头), Hong Hai Ge (红海蛤), each 100g, refine them into powder, use 15-20g each time, press Cong Bai (葱白) to obtain the juice, use the juice with the powder, make a disc form of 5 cm. Put them on both left and right K1 area. In addition, the patients could put their feet into a hot water sink, stop the treatment when sweating occurs and the feeling of numbness in the legs, this could be done twice per week.
- Wash: use for extremities stiffness: Huai Zhi (槐枝), Liu Zhi (柳枝), Zhu Zi (槠子), Qie Zhi (茄枝), Bai Ai (白艾) each 50g, cook in water, prepare sufficient water so that it could be used for 3 times, each time the water should be enough to put until the elbows or until the knees, 10-15 minutes each time, once per day.
TCM Treatments with Acupuncture
Jing Luo Strokes
Free the channels, move Qi and invigorate Blood
Pe 6, Ht 1, Lu 5, Bl 40, Sp 6, St 36
Plus / Minus
- for wind phlegm, add st 40, li 4
- for liver rising, add ki 3, liv 3.
- for phlegm heat plus li 11, st 44, st 40
- for Qi deficiency, add ren 6, sp 10
- for Yin deficiency add ki 3, gb 20
- for twisted mouth, add st 4, st 6
- for upper extremity paralysed, add li 11, li 15, li 10, li 4
- for lower extremity paralysed, add gb 30, gb 34, sp 9, gb 31
- for dizziness, add gb 20, gb 12, bl 10
- for feet bending inward, add gb 40, ki 6, bl 62
- for feet bending outward, add ki 4, ki 3
- for constipation, add st 40, sj 6
- for urination disorder add ren 2, ren 3, ren 4.
Zhang Fu Strokes
Awaken the brain, open the orifice (Bi), rescue the Yang (Tuo)
- for Bi (闭) syndrome, needling with sedation methods, no moxibustion
- for Tuo (脱) syndrome, use a lot of moxa, needling with tonfication methods
Du 26, Du 25, Du 20, Pe 6.
Plus / Minus
For Bi (闭) syndrome add Shi Xuan, li 4, liv 3.
For Tuo (脱) syndrome add ren 4, ren 6, ren 8.
- electro-acupuncture, on the paralysed side of the body, choose two points on the upper extremity and 2 points on the lower extremity, manipulate the needles until De Qi feeling is felt, use Su Mi Buo pulse (疏密波), use weak stimulation until the muscle is twisted slightly.
- head points, use the sensation, movement and speech zones, needling under the skin, strong rotation stimulation for 2-3 minutes 2- 3 times within 30 minutes. After the session, encourage the patient to move some steps.
Resistant Recovery Phase
TCM Treatments with Herbs and Acupuncture
1) Half side paralysed
Tonify Qi, Invigorate Blood, Eliminate Stasis, Free the channels
Bu Yang Huan Wu Tang 补阳还五汤
sj 14, li 11, li 4, tw 5, pe 6, gb 30, gb 34, st 36, sp 6, st 41, bl 60.
2) Speech capacity
Eliminate wind, resolve phlegm, Free the Luo channels, open the orifice
Jie Yu Dan 解语丹
Pe 6, ht 5, ren 23, sp 6, du 15, du 16, EX HN 12, EX HN 13
A strong or weak constitution of the patient, the state of the upright Qi, the severity of the illness, if the treatment is done at the acute state with continue rehabilitation program after, all these influence how well the patients will recover.
Prevention & Care Management
It is essential to observe the warning signs and sign up for treatments in time to prevent the Strokes.
A good care system will reduce the death rate for Stroke patients. After the acute phase, speech therapy, Tui Na, physiotherapy could assist in helping the recovery process or to maintain the current state.
In the TCM hospitals of Bei Jing, Wu Han and Inner Mongolia, during my clinical training weeks, Stroke and Facial Paralysis patients were treated with Herbs and Acupuncture. In Hohhot city, the state TCM hospital has made their own secret herbal formula to treat these patients.
Due to the mobility hindrance, scalp acupuncture and body acupuncture are not done in the same session, often, one session with scalp acupuncture, and the following session with body acupuncture.
Goh Leong Bee, through his more than 30 years of TCM practice, reported that when the patients seeks help within 2 months after the Stroke attack, there is a chance that the patients will gain until 90% of their mobility capacity. He holds also that the family support plays an important role for the recovery process.
Personally, I use cupping as well in treating the Stroke patients. For cases where Blood deficiency apply, cupping is used on both limps to move the Blood locally, for cases where constipation apply, cupping on ren 8, ren 10, st 25 will help to regulate the digestion.
Writing this paper does not suggest that I have rich clinical experience in treating Stroke patients.
However, I am persuaded that Stroke patients in Switzerland and in the region should be provided with TCM as one option when they are looking for help.
I thank you for giving me the chance to present the paper here and that you take time to come for this talk or reading this paper.
Appendix A: Herbal Prescription
Note that some of the prescriptions below contain animal products, please check with your local health authority if you are allowed to use them where you are located. In China, animal products are regarded as part of the Chinese Materia Medica based on a long traditional usage and observation.
Below are prescriptions where you might need to write the individual components when you order the herbs for your patients.
Bu Yang Huan Wu Tang 补阳还五汤
Astragali membranaceae-Radix / Huang Qi, Paeoniae lactiflorae-Radix rubrae / Chi Shao Yao, Angelicae sinensis-Pars caudalis radicis / Dang Gui Wei (tail), Persicae-Semen / Tao Ren, Ligustici chuanxiong-Radix / Chuan Xiong, Carthami tinctorii – Flos / Hong Hua
Di Dang Tang 涤氮汤
Pinelliae ternatae-Rhizoma praeparata / Ban Xia，Arisaematis-Rhizoma / Tian Nan Xing，Citri reticulatae-Pericarpium / Chen Pi，Aurantii Fructus immaturus / Zhi Shi，Poriae cocos-Sclerotium / Fu Ling，Panacis ginseng-Radix / Ren Shen (white)，Acori graminei-Radix / Shi Chang Pu，Bambusae Caulis in taeniis / Zhu Ru，Glycyrrhizae uralensis-Radix / Gan Cao，Zingiberis-Rhizoma recens / Sheng Jiang，Zizyphi jujubae-Fructus / Da Zao (Hong)
Hua Dan Tong Luo Tang 化 氮通络汤
Poriae cocos-Sclerotium / Fu Ling, Pinelliae ternatae-Rhizoma praeparata / Ban Xia, Atractylodis macrocephalae- Rhizoma / Bai Zhu, Gastrodiae elatae-Rhizoma / Tian Ma, Arisaematis-Rhizoma praeparata / Dan Nan Xing, Bambusae-Concretio silicea / Tian Zhu Huang, Salviae miltiorrhizae-Radix / Dan Shen, Cyperi-Rhizoma / Xiang Fu, Rhei-Radix et rhizoma / Da Huang
Jie Yu Dan解语丹
Typhonii-Rhizoma / Bai Fu Zi, Acori graminei-Radix / Shi, Chang Pu-Polygalae / Radix , Yuan Zhi, Gastrodiae elatae-Rhizoma / Tian Ma, Buthus martensi = Scorpio [*] / Quan Xie, Notopterygii-Radix et rhizoma / Qiang Huo, Arisaematis-Rhizoma / Tian Nan Xing, Saussureae-Radix / Mu Xiang, Glycyrrhizae uralensis-Radix / Gan Cao
Ling Yang Jiao Tang 羚羊角汤
Bubali, Cornu [*] / Shui Niu Jiao 1 , Testudinis-Plastrum [*]/Gui Ban, Rehmanniae glutinosae-Radix / Sheng Di Huang, Moutan-Cortex radicis / Mu Dan Pi, Paeoniae lactiflorae-Radix alba / Bai Shao Yao, Bupleuri-Radix / Chai Hu, Menthae-Herba / Bo He, Cicadae-Periostracum [*] / Chan Tui, Chrysanthemi morifolii-Flos / Ju Hua, Prunellae-Spica / Xia Ku Cao, Haliotidis-Concha [*] / Shi Jue Ming, Zizyphi jujubae-Fructus / Da Zao (Hong)
1 In the original formula, Saiga tatarica Linnaeus is used instead of Bubali, Cornu [*], Shui Niu Jiao
Shen Fu Tang 参附汤
Panacis ginseng-Radix / Ren Shen (white), Aconiti carmichaeli-Radix lateralis praeparata / Fu Zi, Zingiberis-Rhizoma recens / Sheng Jiang, Zizyphi jujubae-Fructus / Da Zao (Hong)
Xing Lou Cheng Qi Tang 星蒌承气汤
Arisaematis-Rhizoma praeparata / Dan Nan Xing, Rhei-Radix et rhizoma / Da Huang, Mirabilitum = Natrii Sulfas [*] / Mang Xiao, Trichosanthis-Fructus / Gua Lou
Zhen Gan Xi Feng Tang 镇肝熄风汤
Achyranthis bidentatae-Radix / Huai Niu Xi, raconis-Os [*] / Long Gu, Paeoniae lactiflorae-Radix alba / Bai Shao Yao, Asparagi cochinchinensis-Radix / Tian Men Dong, Hordei-Fructus germinatus / Mai Ya, Haematitum = Ocherum Rubrum [*] / Dai Zhe Shi, Ostreae-Concha [*] / Mu Li, Scrophulariae ningpoensis-Radix / Xuan Shen, Meliae toosendan-Fructus / Chuan Lian Zi, Artemisiae capillaries-Herba / Yin Chen Hao, Glycyrrhizae uralensis-Radix / Gan Cao, Testudinis-Plastrum [*] / Gui Ban
Appendix B: Localisation of Some Relevant Points For Stroke Treatment
Appendix C: Brief Note on Tui Na Treatment
Tui Na (推，按， 捻， 拿，擦) should be done on the side where the extremities are paralysed, from the face, down to the back and both extremities.
Commonly used points for Tui Na are: gb20, gb 21, sj 11, sj 13, li 11, li 10, li 4, gb 30, gb 34, bl 40, bl 57.
Tui Na treatment might profit from the experience gained with Bobath-Koncept  in Physiotherapy. This investigation is yet to be done, hopefully this paper inspires you to do this work.